Hyloxalus anthracinus is a species of frog in the Dendrobatidae family. It is endemic to Ecuador. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montanes, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, and rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Like many members of the Hyloxalus genus, H. anthracinus has a relatively mild toxin. The frog, as a result, is cryptic; it can use its poison in defense, but mostly relies on its camouflaged body for protection.